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Prehistoric Scratchpad

Also known as the "Ocean of Storms". The largest of the cooled magma "seas" on the Moon, and one of the youngest. Known as the "moon rabbit" in Japan and a significant part of the Man on the Moon in the west.


1 Billion Years Ago[]

By this time, all the lava flow in the Ocean had ceased in this ocean. The moon looked more or less the same as it does now from the naked eye. The moon was closer to the Earth though.

Earlier History[]

  • 3.5 Billion years ago, the ocean was formed.
  • The oldest lava flow in the area is estimated to be 1.2 Billion Years per crater counts.

Later History[]

  • The Copernicus Crater was created in the middle of the sea about 800 Million Years ago.
  • By the Warring States period, this ocean was identified as a Rabbit by the Chinese, and later the Japanese.

Modern History[]

  • In 1964, the impact probe Ranger 7 targeted this ocean after the conclusion of its picture-taking mission, and the sea landed in was named "Mare Cognito" (Known Sea).
  • In 1966, Luna 9 landed southwest of Galilaei crater, Luna 13 southeast of Seleucus crater, and Surveyor 1 north of Flamsteed crater.
  • In 1967, NASA's Surveyor 3 landed in Mare Cognito. Two years later, Apollo 12 landed at that same sight, called Statio Cognitum.
  • In 1970, NASA cancelled Apollo 20, which might have explored Copernicus Crater.


Oceanus Procellarum Web Pages[]

Oceanus Procellarum In the News[]

Japanese Team Identifies Impact Basin (Oct 2012)[]

NASA GRAIL Scientists Suggests Edges formed by Faults (Oct 2014)[]

NASA Video about Fire Fountain Volcano Vera[]

Japanese Team Indicates Water Under Moon Rabbit (May 2018)[]

Misjournaling on Polar Lava Tubes (Jan 2018)[]

Recalling Survival of Bacteria on Lunar Surface (May 2018)[]

China's Chang'e 5 Sample Return Delayed to 2019 (Apr 2018)[]



The Incredible Journey of Apollo 12

Apollo 12 Documentary


Moon's "Ocean of Storms" Mystery Solved?

Japanese impact theory.


Fire Fountain Volcano On Moon Carved Deep Channel? Orbiter View Video

Fire Fountain at Vera Volcano


KAGUYA taking the western side of "Oceanus Procellarum" by HDTV

Kaguya over the western side of Oceanus Procellarum.

Google Street View[]

Related Pages[]