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Prehistoric Scratchpad
PhBP Po10BP
The closest known extinct species to humans.

Neanderthals Web PagesEdit

ClassificationEdit

  • Order Primates (Primates) - Mammals with long arms.
    • Family Homonidae (Homonids)
      • Genus Homo (Homo) - The human genus.
        • Species Heidelbergensis (Heidelberg Man) -- Thought to be the direct predecessor to modern humans.
        • Species Neanderthal (Neanderthals) - The closest known extinct species to humans.
        • Species Sapiens (Modern Humans) - Anatomically modern humans.
        • Species Denisovans (Denisovans) - A species of humans in Asia that interbred with modern humans.

Neanderthals In the NewsEdit

BiologyEdit

Homo Heidelbergensis was Only Slightly Taller than the Neanderthal (2012)Edit

Study on sizes of homonins shows remarkable stability over 2 MY until Homo Sapiens, slightly taller, came around.
See also Neanderthals, Heidelberg Man, Modern Humans, Sima de los Huesos

Neanderthal Brains Emphasized Vision and Movement Rather Than Social Networking (2013)Edit

Larger eyes and bodies would require more brain space for vision and movement, leaving less room for social networking. This would make it harder to survive ice age challenges.
See also Neanderthals

Nasal Adaptations Point to Neanderthals Being Separate Species (2014)Edit

See also Neanderthals

Talking Neanderthals Challenge the Origins of Speech (2014)Edit

Hyroid bone from Israel in 1989 reanalyzed and found to be most likely used the same way as humans.
See also Neanderthals, Kebara Cave

Facial Growth Pattern Different Between Humans and Neanderthals (2015)Edit

Humans upper jaw bone growth retracts in childhood, while that of Neanderthals and other archaic humans continues
See also Neanderthals, Modern Humans, Gibraltar Neanderthal Sites, La Quina, Sima de los Huesos

Neanderthal Ear Ossicles (2016)Edit

Ear ossicles of Neanderthals were a different shape but served a similar function.
See also Neanderthals

High Protein Diet Led to Neanderthal Characteristics (2016)Edit

A high protein diet from big game was found to require a larger liver, leading to a larger rib cage, and a larger renal system and bladder, leading to a larger pelvis.
See also Neanderthals

Human Body has Gone Through Four Stages of Evolution (2015)Edit

430 TYO fossils represent the base human body plan for the 3rd of four stages of human evolution (tall, wide, robust bodies, exclusively terrestrial bipedalism), which is shared by all homo members, until humans (taller, lighter, narrower) appeared.
See also Neanderthals, Modern Humans, Sima de los Huesos

BehaviorEdit

Tasks, Childhood, Home, Cannibalism, Burial

Neanderthals were not inferior to modern humans, study finds (2014)Edit

See also Neanderthals

Neanderthal Groups Based Part of their Lifestyle on Sexual Division of Labor (2015)Edit

Studies based on the wear of teeth show that men and women performed some different tasks.
See also Neanderthals, El Sidron Cave, L'Hortus, Spy Cave

Neanderthals Were No Strangers to Good Parenting (2014)Edit

'New study shows that Neanderthal children had childhoods, were more tightly bound to the local community
'See also Neanderthals

Neanderthal Rock Collecting (2017)Edit

Evidence found of Neanderthal's gathering interesting rocks found.

Neanderthals Organized their Living Spaces (2013)Edit

Evidence in an Italian cave shows Neanderthals used one area for butchering, one for hearths, another for tool making, and another for living and sleeping.
See also Neanderthals, Riparo Bombrini

Neanderthals Buried Dead (2013)Edit

Evidence of buriel of Skeletons found in 1908 re-examined. Additional sites nearby of burial found.
See also Neanderthals, La Chapelle-aus-Saints

Neanderthals manipulated bodies of adults and children shortly after death (2015)Edit

Cuts on adults and children could be from a ritual or for cannibalism
See also Neanderthals, Marillac Site

Cannibalism among late Neanderthals in northern Europe (2016)Edit

Cannibalism and Neanderthal bone tools found among late Neanderthals in the Netherlands
See also Neanderthals, Goyet Caves

Industry and ArtEdit

Neanderthals and Contemporaries Engineered Stone Tools (2012)Edit

Neanderthals engineered stone tools with an idea of what they would be, instead of creating random flakes formed by creating a core.
See also Neanderthals

Two Handaxe Making Traditions Existed (2013)Edit

Handaxes made in the British Isles and France differed from that from Germany and further east, with a melting pot in between at Belgium and the Netherlands.
See also Neanderthals

Body ornamentation among Neanderthals: Dig in France confirmed as Neanderthal Remains (2016)Edit

Body ornaments found at Grotte du Renne confirmed to be of Neanderthal origin.
See also Neanderthals, Grotte du Renne

Neanderthals used fire in caves (2016)Edit

Uranium dating shows stalagmite structures in Bruniquel Cave formed by Neanderthals.
See also Neanderthals, Bruniquel Cave

First Neanderthal Rock Engraving Found in Gibraltar (2014)Edit

first example of rock engraving attributed to Neanderthals discovered
See also Neanderthals, Gorham's Cave ,Gibraltar Neanderthal Sites

DietEdit

Nutritional Distress Due to Climate Change Contributed to Extinction (2016)Edit

Evidence of nutritional stress (such as trying to extract nutrients from marrow low bones) shows evidence that climate change was a factor for the Neanderthal's extinction

Neanderthals in Northern Spain had Knowledge of Plants' Healing Qualities (2012)Edit

First molecular evidence that Neanderthals ate cooked plant foods and understood its nutritional and medicinal qualities.
See also Neanderthals, El Sidron Cave

First Direct Evidence of Plants in Neanderthal Diet (2014)Edit

Fecal testing shows direct evidence of plant consumption by Neanderthals. Previous studies only showed it in their teeth, which could have gotten there via tool usage.
See also Neanderthals, El Salt

Neanderthals on cold Mammoth Steppes Also Ate Plants (2016)Edit

It was found that even in cold plains regions, Neanderthals ate plants.

Neanderthal Diet was 80% Meat, 20% Vegetables (2016)Edit

Diet determined by studying collagen from bones in Belgium showed they mainly ate large plant eaters (such as mammoths and rhinoceroses), while other predators ate smaller game. It also showed vegetables made up 20% diet, lessening the impact of diet on why they passed away and humans remained.

Dental plaque DNA shows Neanderthals used 'asperin' (2017)Edit

DNA in dental plaque reveals what Neanderthals ate. Some were mostly carnivores, while others were vegetarian. A sick Neanderthal seems to have used local herbs to heal himself. Microbial DNA suggests humans and Neanderthals swapped mouth bacteria long after the species had diverged.
See also Neanderthals, Spy Cave, El Sidron Cave, Human-Neanderthal Divergence

What rabbits can tell us about Neanderthal Extinction (2015)Edit

Neanderthals did not exploit rabbits as food, while humans did. Were they unable to catch them and able to adapt to the loss of larger animals?
See also Neanderthals, Modern Humans, Neanderthal Extinction

Nitrogen Content in Food Changed (2014)Edit

An earlier study looked at Nitrogen content in Neanderthal and modern humans and surmised modern humans had a greater variety of diet. But the Nitrogen content of food itself changed over time.
See also Neanderthals

PopulationsEdit

Includes Populations, Decline, and Extinction
See also Neanderthal Extinction, Neanderthal Big Freeze, Neanderthal - Cro-Magnon Contact

European Neanderthals on Verge of Extinction Even Before Modern Humans Arrived (2012)Edit

Most Neanderthals in Europe died off 50 TYA, then they recolonized if and lasted another 10 TY, where their genetic diversity was very low, until modern humans arrived.
See also Neanderthals, Neanderthal Extinction, Neanderthal Die Off

Neanderthals and Cro-magnons Did Not Coexist on the Iberian Peninsula (2014)Edit

Study re-dates bones at three Pyrenees caves using collagen DNA testing finds that there was a large gap between Neanderthal's and Cro-magnons' use of the cave, suggesting they did not co-exist on the peninsula. It is consistent with other regional studies which suggests no contact may have been made in Western Europe.
See also Neanderthals, Modern Humans, Neanderthal - Cro-Magnon Contact, L'Arbreda, Labeko Koba, La Vina

Neanderthals 'Overlapped' with Modern Humans for up to 5,400 years (2014)Edit

Study produces maps of when Neanderthals died out in various places in Europe and when modern humans arrived.
See also Neanderthals, Modern Humans, Mousterian Industry, Uluzzian Industry, Chatelperronian Industry, Grotta del Cavallo

Scientists Provide More Accurate Age for El Sidron Cave Neanderthals (2013)Edit

Application of pre-treatment to reduce contamination lowers margin of error from 40K to 3.2K years. It was found to be 49K, much better than unreliable 10K.
See also Neanderthals, El Sidron Cave

Archaeologists rediscover the lost home of the last Neanderthals (2013)Edit

Site that was thought to be lost recovered.
See also Neanderthals, La Cotte de St Brelade

Neanderthals Disappeared From Iberian Penninsula Before Rest of Europe (2015)Edit

Neanderthals were found to have disappeared from Iberian Penninsula before rest of Europe, instead of being its last stronghold.
See also Neanderthals, El Salt, Neanderthal Extinction

Human Hunting Weapons May Not have Caused the Demise of the Neanderthals (2015)Edit

Research shows that innovation of spear tip was developed by humans in Europe and later found its way to the near east. It thus likely did not precipitate humans entering Europe and allow them to overtake the Neanderthals.
See also Neanderthals, Modern Humans, Neanderthal - Cro-Magnon Contact, Neanderthal Extinction

Neanderthals in Germany: First population peak, then sudden extinction (2016)Edit

See also Neanderthal Demographic Peak in Germany

DiscoveriesEdit

Novel collagen fingerprinting identifies a Neanderthal bone among 2000 fragments (2016)Edit

DivergenceEdit

See also Human-Neanderthal Divergence

Research Raises Doubts on Neanderthal-Modern Human Interbreeding (2012)Edit

Research suggests similarity in DNA stems from common ancestry and activation of genes in similar environments.
See also Neanderthals, Modern Humans Diverge from Neanderthals and Denisovans, Neanderthal - Cro-Magnon Contact

Dental Study Suggests No Known Hominin is Common Ancestor to Neanderthals and Modern Humans (2012)Edit

Study of teeth shows no known hominin matches the expected profile of Neanderthal and Modern Humans and so the split may have occurred a million years ago.
See also Neanderthals and Modern Humans Diverge from Neanderthals and Denisovans

Neanderthal Genome Shows Early Human Interbreeding, Inbreeding (2013)Edit

First high quality of Neanderthal genome created (from a 50 TYO Neanderthal woman's toe in Denisova Cave), allowing for comparison between modern humans and Denisovans.
See also Neanderthals, Denisova Cave, Modern Humans, Denisovans, Neanderthal-Denisovan Divergence, Neanderthal-Denisovan Common Ancestor - Modern Human Divergence, Neanderthal - Cro-Magnon Contact, Neanderthal-Denisovan Interbreeding

Schizophrenia emerged after humans diverged from Neanderthals (2016)Edit

Schizophrenia markers were only found in areas of the genome that differed significantly from Neanderthals, suggesting it developed after humans diverged from them.
See also Neanderthals, Modern Humans, Human-Neanderthal Divergence

400,000 Year Old Fossils from Spain Provide Earliest Genetic Evidence of Neanderthals (2016)Edit

Fossils of uncertain ancestry found to be early Neanderthal
See also Neanderthals, Denisovans, Sima de los Huesos

Virtual Fossil Reveals Last Common Ancestor of Humans and Neanderthals (2015)Edit

Fossils from skeletons of humans, Neanderthals, and homo erectus were modeled to determine what the last common ancestor was.
See also Neanderthals, Modern Humans, Heidelberg Man, Human-Neanderthal Divergence

Neanderthal Viruses Found in Modern Humans (2013)Edit

Viruses found in Neanderthal bones were found in the DNA of modern humans, suggesting they developed before they diverged over half a million years ago. These viruses my affect health of humans.
See also Neanderthals, Human-Neanderthal Divergence

InterbreedingEdit

See also Neanderthal - Cro-Magnon Contact

Neanderthals mates with modern humans much earlier than previously though (2016)Edit

Human DNA found in an Neanderthal suggests failed migration out of Africa and early interbreeding.

Sunlight Adaptation Region of Neanderthal Genome Found in Much Of East Asian Population (2013)Edit

Neanderthal DNA related to US light adaptation was adapted by East Asians more than other populations.
See also Neanderthals, Neanderthal - Cro-Magnon Contact

Immune Receptor Inherited from Neanderthal (2013)Edit

One of the receptors that identifies invaders was found to be of Neanderthal origins and rare in Africa.
See also Neanderthals, Neanderthal - Cro-Magnon Contact

Neanderthals' Genetic Legacy (2014)Edit

Humans inherited variants affecting disease risk, infertility, skin and hair characteristics
See also Neanderthals, Neanderthal - Cro-Magnon Contact

Over 20 Percent of Neanderthal Genomes Survives Today (2104)Edit

A study of Europeans and East Asians found 20% of the Neanderthal Genome survives in the sample group.
See also Neanderthals, Neanderthal - Cro-Magnon Contact

Inbred Neanderthals left humans a genetic burden (2016)Edit

In breeding common to Neanderthals left them with harmful mutations that made them 40% less reproductively fit than humans. Some of this difficulty was passed on to modern humans when they interbred.

Neanderthal Inheritance Helped Humans Adapt to Life Outside of Africa (2016)Edit

DNA studies show that among the areas inherited by humans from Neanderthals are those related to immune system and skin.

World Map of Neanderthal and Denisovan Ancestry in Modern Humans (2016)Edit

Study creates map of Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestry. Denisovan interbreeding thought to occur 100 generations after Neanderthal.

Modern Men Lack Y Chromosome Genes (2016)Edit

Study compares Y Chromosome of humans and Neanderthals and determines that humans today did not inherit any parts of this chromosome. It also determined when the species originally diverged.

Neanderthal DNA Contributes to Human Gene Expression (2017)Edit

Neanderthal genes found to contribute to human height and susceptibility to schizophrenia or lupus.

Evolution Purged Many Neanderthal Genes from Human Genome (2016)Edit

Because the human population was larger, slightly deleterious genes that were allowed to remain in the Neanderthal gene pool were purged via natural selection when they entered humans.

Ancient Denisvan DNA excavated in modern Pacific IslandersEdit

Neanderthal Genese Gave Modern Humans an Immunity Boost, Allergy (2016)Edit

Ancient human hisotyr more complex than previously though, researchers say (2016)Edit

Europeans, Africans have different immune systems, and Neanderthals are partly to thank (2016)Edit

Europeans have three times more Neanderthal genes for lipid catabolism than Asians or Africans (2014)Edit

See also Neanderthals, Neanderthal - Cro-Magnon Contact

DiseasesEdit

Neanderthals May Have Been Infected by Diseases Carried Out of Africa by Humans (2016)Edit

Genetic study of diseases shows they could jump between species of homonin.

Other SectionsEdit

SitesEdit

SpainEdit

  • El Sidron Cave - A cave in Spain that contains Neanderthal fossils dated to 49,000 years ago. There was no evidence of meat consumption by the Neanderthals there, but instead a vegetarian diet consisting of pine nuts, moss, mushrooms, and tree bark. Dental studies show women and men differed in some tasks performed.
  • El Salt - A site in the Valencian Community of Spain that contains evidence of Neanderthal's during their last 30,000 years on the Iberian Peninsula. A sedimentary hiatus found at this site and others in the area point to the disappearance of Neanderthals around 45,000 on the peninsula. It is thought that a gradual population decrease due to climate change caused this decline, since humans had yet to reach this area.
Pyrenees
  • La Vina - Cave in the Pyrenees in Asturias. Dating of Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon occupation showed that the two species did not co-exist on the Iberian Peninsula.
  • Labeko Koba - Cave in the Pyrenees in Gipuzkoa in the Deba valley on the entry corridor through the Western Pyrenes. Dating of Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon occupation showed that the two species did not co-exist on the Iberian Peninsula.
  • L'Arbreda - Cave in the Pyrenees in Girona along the eastern pass, and provides a magnificent sequence of the Upper Palaeolithic of Cro-Magnons. Dating of Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon occupation showed that the two species did not co-exist on the Iberian Peninsula.

GibraltarEdit

  • Gibraltar Neanderthal Sites - A set of 10 sites where Neanderthals lived. This represents the highest known concentration of Neanderthals and their last refuge. Modern humans did not reach here until after the Neanderthals had become extinct. Complete Neanderthal skulls have been found here. Neanderthal made rock engravings have also been found here.

FranceEdit

  • Bruniquel Cave - Site of first proven case of human cave use. Early Neanderthals build circular structures with stalagmites. Evidence of fires show they knew how to control the substance.
  • Grotte du Renne - Site in France with controversial troves of jewelry dating to 42,000. The Châtelperronian is named for artifacts found at this site. It was not clear if this was created by Neanderthals or the first modern humans to enter Europe. Human bone fragments from a back of an infants skull were determined to be Neanderthal by protein analysis. A hypothesis is that Neanderthals created the items after observing them from their new modern human neighbors.
  • La Quina - A site in France where complete Neanderthal skulls have been found.
  • Marillac Site - Neanderthal site in the French region of Poitou-Charentes. Neanderthal remains were found there fomr 57 TYA which shows signs of being cut, beat, and fractured shortly after their deaths by other Neanderthals. It is not knows if this is from a ritual or for cannibalism.
  • La Chapelle-aus-Saints - Site in France where evidence of Neanderthal burials was found in 1908. This evidence was re-examined and supported in 2013.

JerseyEdit

  • La Cotte de St Brelade - A site on Jersey, a British owned island off the coast of Normandy. Thought to be lost through excavation 100 years ago, it was found to be preserved in 2013. Neanderthals were shown to have come here often from 180 to 40 TYA. Routes could be taken to it over the English Channel during glacial pariods and during warm periods it would be a high point visible off the coast of France. Studies were made to determine where they had been traveling from.

NetherlandsEdit

  • Spy Cave - A cave in the Netherland that contains Neanderthal fossils dated to 36,000, though they were probably over 40,000 years old. Dental plaque DNA revealed a diet of woolly rhinoceros and European wild sheet, supplemented with mushrooms. This contrasted with a vegetarian diet found at another site. Dental studies show women and men differed in some tasks performed.
  • Goyet Caves - A cave in the Netherlands first excavated over 150 years ago with Neanderthal bones dating 40.5 to 45.5 TYA where evidence of cannibalism was found. Bone tools (including from Neanderthals) were also found here used to shape stone tools. Genetic analysis confirmed there was little genetic variance among Neanderthals in this area, showing they were all closely related.

ItalyEdit

  • Riparo Bombrini - A cave in North-West Italy. Studies found that Neanderthals organized their living spaces here.
  • Grotta del Cavallo - A cave in Italy that contains Neanderthal Mousterian culture remains. Human teeth remains were also found from 43-45 TYA, representing the earliest evidence of modern human in Europe.

RomaniaEdit

  • Oase Cave - A cave in Romania where a jaw of a oldest human living in Europe was found. He lived 37,000 to 42,000 years ago, had six to nine percent Neanderthal DNA and a Neanderthal in his family tree four to six generations ago. This implies that humans mixed with Neanderthals not just in the Middle East but in Europe as well.

CroatiaEdit

  • Krapina Neanderthal Site - A site in Croatia with the largest number of Neanderthal bones found in Europe. Evidence of Neanderthals collecting rocks has been found here. Also evidence of eagle talons being used as jewelry was found here.

IsraelEdit

  • Kebara Cave - Cave in Israel where the most complete postcranial Neanderthal skeleton was found to date, dating to about 60 TYA. It contained the first hyoid bone, which was analyzed and shown that it was used in a similar manner as it is on humans, showing that Neanderthals likely used human-like speech.

RussiaEdit

  • Denisova Cave - Site in Altai mountains near in Siberia near Mongolian boarder. Denisovan humans were discovered here. The toe of an inbred Neanderthal which was DNA sequenced was found here. A Neanderthal woman with human genes was found here. Both species were dated to 30-50 ka. A 50ka+ Neanderthal bone that passed through the stomach of a hyena was also found here and identified with collagen fingerprinting.

IndustryEdit

  • Mousterian Industry - Neanderthal industry most common in the Middle Paleolithic. Date from around 160 to 40 TYA.
  • Chatelperronian Industry - The earliest industry of the Upper Palaeolithic. It was contested whether this was a human or Neanderthal industry. Evidence currently support the idea of it being Neanderthal.

EventsEdit

  • Quaternary Period (2.58-0.00 MYA) - The current Period. The age of humans. This time is the "current ice age", the Quaternary Glaciation.
    • Holocene Epoch (11.7-0 TYA) - The current epoch. The age of modern man. The current interglacial of the Quaternary Glaciation.
    • Pleistocene Epoch (2.58-0.0117 MYA) - The previous epoch. Includes the beginning of the Quaternary Glaciation, several inter-glacials, up until the beginning of the current interglacial.
      • Tarantian Age (126-11.7 TYA) - The Late Pleistocene. Defined as the beginning of the Eemian Interglacial until the end of the last glacial period of the last ice age.
        • Last Glacial Period (110-10 TYA) - The last glacial period in the current ice age. Has several names depending on geography, including Wisconsin Glaciation.
          • Event: Last Glacial Maximum (26.5-19 TYA) - Time during the Last Glacial Period where ice was at its greatest extent.
          • Event: Neanderthal Extinction (40 TYA) - Neanderthals went extinct due to a combination of climate change, out-competition with modern humans, and assimilation into modern human populations.
          • Event: Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption (40 TYA) - An eruption in Italy that coincided with the Neanderthal's extinction. This eruption mostly affected eastern Europe and Asia and spared the Neanderthal's, who were living in western Europe. Global cooling could have affected them though and hastened their ongoing demise.
          • Site: Oase Cave (37-42 TYA) - A cave in Romania where a jaw of a oldest human living in Europe was found. He lived 37,000 to 42,000 years ago, had six to nine percent Neanderthal DNA and a Neanderthal in his family tree four to six generations ago. This implies that humans mixed with Neanderthals not just in the Middle East but in Europe as well.
          • Event: Neanderthal - Cro-Magnon Contact (65-47 TYA) - Cro-Magnon Man enters Neanderthal held areas. They were likely able to make inroads due to advances in hunting technology and the expansion of the plains. Evidence of inter-mating is evident, the second such time.
          • Industry: Chatelperronian Industry (45 to 40 TYA) - The earliest industry of the Upper Palaeolithic. It was contested whether this was a human or Neanderthal industry. Evidence currently support the idea of it being Neanderthal.
          • Site: Spy Cave (40+ TYA) - A cave in the Netherland that contains Neanderthal fossils dated to 36,000, though they were probably over 40,000 years old. Dental plaque DNA revealed a diet of woolly rhinoceros and European wild sheet, supplemented with mushrooms. This contrasted with a vegetarian diet found at another site. Dental studies show women and men differed in some tasks performed.
          • Site: Denisova Cave (30-50 TYA) - Site in Altai mountains near in Siberia near Mongolian boarder. Denisovan humans were discovered here. The toe of an inbred Neanderthal which was DNA sequenced was found here. A Neanderthal woman with human genes was found here. Both species were dated to 30-50 ka. A 50ka+ Neanderthal bone that passed through the stomach of a hyena was also found here and identified with collagen fingerprinting.
          • Site: Goyet Caves (40.5-45.5 TYA) - A cave in the Netherlands first excavated over 150 years ago with Neanderthal bones dating 40.5 to 45.5 TYA where evidence of cannibalism was found. Bone tools (including from Neanderthals) were also found here used to shape stone tools. Genetic analysis confirmed there was little genetic variance among Neanderthals in this area, showing they were all closely related.
          • Site: Grotte du Renne (42 TYA) - Site in France with controversial troves of jewelry dating to 42,000. The Châtelperronian is named for artifacts found at this site. It was not clear if this was created by Neanderthals or the first modern humans to enter Europe. Human bone fragments from a back of an infants skull were determined to be Neanderthal by protein analysis. A hypothesis is that Neanderthals created the items after observing them from their new modern human neighbors.
          • Site: El Salt (75-45 TYA) - A site in the Valencian Community of Spain that contains evidence of Neanderthal's during their last 30,000 years on the Iberian Peninsula. A sedimentary hiatus found at this site and others in the area point to the disappearance of Neanderthals around 45,000 on the peninsula. It is thought that a gradual population decrease due to climate change caused this decline, since humans had yet to reach this area.
          • Event: Neanderthal Big Freeze (48 TYA) - A deep freeze unlike any other the Neanderthals had faced at 48 TYA. In a few decades, the North Atlantic froze over.
          • Event: Neanderthal Demographic Peak in Germany (70-43 TYA) - Vast majority of Neanderthal settlements in Germany found in this period. Rapid decline over 1K years afterwards and on 4 settlements known earlier after 110K.
          • Site: El Sidron Cave (49 TYA) - A cave in Spain that contains Neanderthal fossils dated to 49,000 years ago. There was no evidence of meat consumption by the Neanderthals there, but instead a vegetarian diet consisting of pine nuts, moss, mushrooms, and tree bark. Dental studies show women and men differed in some tasks performed.
          • Site: La Chapelle-aus-Saints (50 TYA) - Site in France where evidence of Neanderthal burials was found in 1908. This evidence was re-examined and supported in 2013.
          • Event: Neanderthal Die Off (50 TYA) - Nearly all Neanderthals in Europe die, followed by recolonization by a small group of central and western Europe. Genetic diversity plummets and is no more than that of humans in modern day Iceland.
          • Site: Kebara Cave - (60 TYA) - Cave in Israel where the most complete postcranial Neanderthal skeleton was found to date, dating to about 60 TYA. It contained the first hyoid bone, which was analyzed and shown that it was used in a similar manner as it is on humans, showing that Neanderthals likely used human-like speech.
          • Event: First Human-Neanderthal Contact (100 TYA) - Earliest known human-Neanderthal interbreeding. Occurred after a failed human migration out of Africa. Humans may have been unequipped to make forays into Neanderthal territory. Event detected by finding human DNA in a Neanderthal.
          • Event: Marillac Site (47.6 TYA) - Neanderthal site in the French region of Poitou-Charentes. Neanderthal remains were found there fomr 57 TYA which shows signs of being cut, beat, and fractured shortly after their deaths by other Neanderthals. It is not knows if this is from a ritual or for cannibalism.
        • Eemian Stage (130-114 TYA) - Last interglacial before Holocene. Thought to have been warmer than the Holocene.
          • Site: Krapina Neanderthal Site (130 TYA) - A site in Croatia with the largest number of Neanderthal bones found in Europe. Evidence of Neanderthals collecting rocks has been found here. Also evidence of eagle talons being used as jewelry was found here.
      • Ionian Age (781-126 TYA) - The Middle Pleistocene. Neanderthals developed in this era (400 TYA). The earliest known human DNA dates to this time as does the beginning of the extinction of large mammals (132 TYA).
        • Site: Bruniquel Cave (176.5 TYA) - Site of first proven case of human cave use. Early Neanderthals build circular structures with stalagmites. Evidence of fires show they knew how to control the substance.
        • Site: La Cotte de St Brelade (180 TYA) - A site on Jersey, a British owned island off the coast of Normandy. Thought to be lost through excavation 100 years ago, it was found to be preserved in 2013. Neanderthals were shown to have come here often from 180 to 40 TYA. Routes could be taken to it over the English Channel during glacial pariods and during warm periods it would be a high point visible off the coast of France. Studies were made to determine where they had been traveling from.
        • Site: Sima de los Huesos (430 TYA) - Site in northern Spain containing the oldest known Neanderthals (430,000 YA) from DNA, originally considered Heidelberg Man fossils. These individuals were also found to have mitochondrial dna distantly related to the Denisovans. This suggests that later Neanderthals acquired their mitochondrial dna from a later population, perhaps from one migrating from Africa. These individuals have similar post-cranial skeletons as Neanderthals, but smaller brain mass relative to body mass. The only non-permafrost site that allows for DNA studies from the Middle Pleistocene. These remains have been used as a representative for archaic humans in studies on human body plans and facial growth patterns.
        • Event: Neanderthal-Denisovan Divergence (Over 430 TYA) - Denisovans and Neanderthal lineage diverges. Neanderthal DNA with mitochondrial DNA closer to that of a Denisovan put this split before 430 TYA when that fossil was created.
        • Event: Humans Diverge from Neanderthals and Denisovans (550 TYA) - Modern humanity diverges from the common ancestor of Neanderthal and Denisovans lineage diverges. Mitochondrial analysis put this at between 400 and 500 TYA, while a more recent Y chromosome analysis put it at 550 TYA. Earlier set at between 750 and 550 TYA.
        • Event: Homo Erectus Extinction (550-143 TYA) - Homo Erectus is though to likely have gone extinct by 550 TYA but possibly survived until 143 TYA. It was previously thought that they had survived in Indonesia until 35-50 TYA, which would have had them coexist to modern humans.
      • Calabrian Age (1.806-0.781 MYA) - 
      • Gelasian Age (2.588-1.806 MYA) - An age
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