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A list of empires.

Empires in the West[]

  • Carthaginian Empire - Territory controlled by Carthage. Founded in 814 BC and was a dependant state of Tyre of Phoenicia until it gained its independance in 650 BC and gained hegemony over other Phoenician settlements throughout the Meditteranian Sea. It was destroyed by Rome in the 3rd Punic War in 146 BC.
  • Roman Empire - Largest and longest lasting empire in the West. Started from the Roman Republic. Transitioned to an empire perhaps in 27 BC upon granting Octavian the honorific "Augustus". Split into the Eastern and Western Roman Empires permanently in 395 AD. The Western Empire collapsed in 476 AD. The Eastern Empire became the Byzantine Empire and its capital Constantinople fell in 1453.
    • Western Roman Empire - Western half of the Roman Empire when it was split in 285 AD. United with the Eastern Empire several times, until permanent separation in 395 AD. Fell in 480.

Empires in Eastern Europe[]

  • Macedonian Empire (330-312 BC)- The Empire of Alexander the Great during his reign. He was crowned king of Macedon in 336 BC, pharoah of Egypt in 332 BC, and king of Persia in 330 BC. His conquests extended Macedonia to the Indus River. After he died, 323 BC, his empire divided among his generals.
  • Byzantine Empire - Eastern half of the Roman Empire after it split in 285 by Diocletian. Its capital Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

Empires in Turkey[]

  • Hittite Empire () - Hittite Empire
  • Lydian Empire () - Empire based in Turkey. One of the four powers that arose after the Assyrian Empire fell. Noted for inventing gold coins. Fell to Persia after attacking it.

Empires in Egypt[]

  • Kushite Empire (760 BC–656 BC) - Egyptian empire that rose from the Egyptian colony of Kush. Also known as Egypt's 25th Dynasty or the Nubian Dynasty. Egypt reached its largest extent since the Middle Kingdom. Ended with a war with the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
  • Saite Period Egypt (685-525 BC) - 26th Dynasty in Egypt based in capital of Sais. Last native dynasty prior to the Persian conquest of Egypt. Started out as a puppet dynasty installed by the Assyrians. One of the four powers that rose after the fall of Assyria. Tried to regain Egypt's prominence in middle east, but thwarted by Neo-Babylonians. Did not fall to the Babylonians, but instead to the Persians.

Empires in Mesopotamia[]

  • Akkadian Empire (2334–2193 BC) - Akkadian Empire
  • Neo-Assyrian Empire (934–609 BC) - Empire in Mesopotamia. Some scholars consider this to be the first real empire in human history.
  • Chaldean Empire (626–539 BC) - The Chaldean Empire is also known as the Neo-Babylonian Empire. One of the four powers that arose after the Assyrian Empire fell. Conquered by Persia.
  • Seleucid Empire (312–63BC)- Successor to Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire in Persia. Established 312. Ended in 63 BC when Rome annexed Syria as a province.

Empires in Iran[]

  • Median Empire (678-549 BC) - First empire of Persian people. One of the four powers that rose after the fall of the Assyrian Empire by 605 BC. Kingdom established in 678 BC. Overthrown by Cyrus the Great in 549 BC, who founded the Persian Empire.
  • Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC) - Also known as the First Persian Empire. Founded in 550 when Cyrus the Great rose up against the Median Empire and conquered it. Conquered by Alexander the Great in 330 BC.
  • Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD)- The Parthian Empire was also known as the Arsacid Empire. It was established in 247 BC when Arsaces I, chieftan of the Parni who had conquered Parthia and gained its independance from the Seleucid Empire. It was disestablished in 224 AD. It would soon be succeeded by the Sassanid Empire, which began the same year.
  • Sassanid Empire (224–651 AD)- Empire that succeeded the Parthian Empire. Established in AD 224. Disestablished in AD 651.

Empires in South Asia[]

  • Magadha Empire - Any one of a series of empires based on dynastys centered on the rule of the Magadha Kingdom.
    • Magadha Empire per Paranas, but not tradition: Brihadratha Empire, Pradyota Empire, Haryanka Empire
    • Shishunaga Empire (413 BC–345 BC) - The Shishunaga dynasty founded in 413 BC by a minister of the last Haryanka dynasty ruler after a popular rebellion, who founded the Magadha Empire that year. He went on to govern one of the largest empires at the time. Bloody royal succession led to proper revolts which lead to its disestablished in 345 BC and replacement by the Nanda Dynasty.
    • Nanda Empire (345-321 BC) - Sometimes called the first empire builders in India and the first to expand beyond Magadha. The Nanda Dynasty started with an illegitimate son of the last Shishunaga dynasty emperor in 345 BC who inherited Magadha and defeated 10 of his others sons with other womens. His coronation is sometimes given as 364 BC, others 382 BC. It conquered much of India with a massive army. Never fought the armies of Alexander the Great, who mutinied upon the thought of facing a formidable foe. Ended in 321 BC when conquered by Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Mauryan Empire, who had been insulted by the Nanda rulers and led a guerrila uprising against the dynasty and overthrew it.
    • Maurya Empire (322–185 BC)- Empire in India that was formed when it conquered the much more powerful Nanda Empire. Founded in 322 BC. One of its kings converted to Buddhism after remorse at the destruction he caused in war. It was the largest empire ever in India. It lasted until 185 BC.
    • Sunga Empire (185-73 BC) - Empire in India based in Magadha. Established in 185 BC when the commander in chief of the Maurya forces assassinated the last Mauryan emperor and then claimed the throne for himself. The leadership reverted to Hinduism at this time and corresponded with a decline in Buddhism in India. Lasted until 75 BC, when the last emperor, who was said to be overfond of women, was assassinated by his minister, who went on to found the Kanva Dynasty.
    • Gupta Empire (320-600 AD) - Native Indian Empire from North East India that replaced the Kushan Empire. Started in 320 AD and ended in the 600s AD.
  • Satavahana Empire (230 BC - 220 AD) - Southern Indian empirical dynasty based on the Andhra kingdom. Began as feudatories to the Mauryan Empire, but declared their independance in 230 BC after its decline. Ruled much of south central India. Lasted until 220 AD, when it broke up into several smaller states.
  • Gangaridai Empire (CA 300 BC - CA 100 AD) - Empire in India thought to be based at the mouth of the Ganges River. The prospect of battling a joint force between it and the Nanda Empire may have caused Alexander the Great's men to mutiny. Founded around 300 BC and lasted perhaps until around 100 AD. Thought to be related and allied to the Nanda through royal marriage ties. Not much is known about it.
  • Kushan Empire (30-225 AD) - Empire in India of Mongol tribe origin. Founded in 30 AD and persisted until 375 AD. Split into eastern and western kingdoms at 225 AD. The western half fell to Sassanids, while the eastern disintegrated and partly fell to the Gupta Empire.

Empires in East Asia[]

  • Chinese Empire - Chinese Empire
    • Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) - 1st Imperial Dynasty of China. Founded in 221 BC by the first emperor of China, it quickly collapsed in 206 BC after his death.
    • Han Dynasty (206 BC - 200 AD) - 2nd Chinese Imperial Dynasty. Founded by the rebel Liu Bang in 206 BC after the fall of the Qin Dynasty. It was briefly interupted by the Xin Dynasty (9-23 AD), and is called the Western Han before then, and the Eastern Han afterwards. In 200 AD it was succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period.
    • Jin Dynasty (265-420 AD) - The Jin Dynasty reunited China in 265 AD. It was soon weakened after a war though, and forced to abandon the north to non-Chinese who founded several kingdoms. It moved its capital to the south in 316, transitioning between the Western Jin and Eastern Jin Dynasties. It was replaced by the Southern and Northern Dynasties period in 420 AD.