Prehistoric Scratchpad
A time when modern humans shared the earth with other types of humans, including Neanderthals in Europe and western asia, Denisovans in central and eastern asia, floresiensis in indonesia, and possibly Nidali in South Africa. Modern Humans were mostly in Africa, but spread into the middle east and other parts of asia, though these humans have no descendants. Australia and the Americas were not likely inhabited by any type of human.

100,000 Years Ago Web PagesEdit



Southern Africa

  • Pinnacle Point - Possible refuge for humanity with an abundance of sea life.

Central Africa

  • Kabwe - Place where Rhodesian Man was found (Broken Hill skull). Initially thought to be about 100,000 years old, it's more likely closer to 300,000.

East Africa

  • Panga ya Saidi - Forest cave along Kenya’s coast. Only continuously habitated site, spanning all of the later stone age.

North Africa

  • Cave of Pigeons - Cave (Taforalt or Grotte des Pigeons) in Morocco that could be North Africa's oldest burial site. Shell beads over 100,000 years old have also been found here.


Western Europe

  • Gorham's Cave - A cave on Gibraltar that contains the first example of Neanderthal art found (39 TYA), consisting of a series of scratches on rocks.
  • Baume Moula-Guercy - Cave in southern France that shows Neanderthals resorting to cannibalism during the Eemian.
  • Goyet Caves - A cave in the Netherlands first excavated over 150 years ago with Neanderthal bones dating 40.5 to 45.5 TYA where evidence of cannibalism was found. Bone tools (including from Neanderthals) were also found here used to shape stone tools. Genetic analysis confirmed there was little genetic variance among Neanderthals in this area, showing they were all closely related.
  • La Cotte de St Brelade - A site on Jersey, a British owned island off the coast of Normandy. Thought to be lost through excavation 100 years ago, it was found to be preserved in 2013. Neanderthals were shown to have come here often from 180 to 40 TYA. Routes could be taken to it over the English Channel during glacial pariods and during warm periods it would be a high point visible off the coast of France. Studies were made to determine where they had been traveling from.

Eastern Europe

  • Krapina Neanderthal Site - A site in Croatia with the largest number of Neanderthal bones found in Europe. Evidence of Neanderthals collecting rocks has been found here. Also evidence of eagle talons being used as jewelry was found here.
  • Pesturina Cave - First cave in Serbia found to have Neanderthal remains.
  • Theopetra Cave - Cave in Greece with continuous human inhabitants for 50,000 years that includes that transition from Neanderthal to Modern Human occupation and hunter gatherers to agricultural lifestyles.


West Asia

  • Carmel Caves - Caves in Israel with some of the earliest humans skeletons found outside of Europe.
  • Al Wusta Cave - Site in Saudi Arabia with a pre-Toba human finger bone.

South Asia

  • Bhimbetka Rock Shelters - Rock shelter in India that has been inhabited for over 100,000 years and contains rock art from 30,000 years ago up through the midieval times.

Central Asia

  • Denisova Cave - Site in Altai mountains near in Siberia near Mongolian boarder. Denisovan humans were discovered here. The toe of an inbred Neanderthal which was DNA sequenced was found here. A Neanderthal woman with human genes was found here. Both species were dated to 30-50 ka. A 50ka+ Neanderthal bone that passed through the stomach of a hyena was also found here and identified with collagen fingerprinting.

East Asia

  • Lingjing - Archaeological site near Lingjing town Northern China which may have been a paleolithic kill butchery site. The first site in China found from the Old Stone Age, and its site is transitional between the Early and Later paleolithic Ages of the Chinese Paleolithic cultureal system. Contains the oldest known bone tools in China and Xuchang Man, a possible new human species, was found here.
  • Nihawan Basin - River basin in China just west of Beijing that is home to many archaeological dates dating from almost 2 million years ago to a hundred thousand years ago.
  • Luna Cave - Lunadong cave where modern human teeth were found over 100ka.

Southeast Asia

  • Liang Bua - Cave on Flores island where Homo Floresiensis was discovered.

Australia & OceanaEdit

  • Moyjil Site - Site in Australia (also called Point Ritchie) with controversial evidence of human activity 120ka.


North America

  • Cerruti Mastadon Site - Controversial site in California containing mammoth bones that appear to have been butchered by archaic humans.

Related LinksEdit

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